Vorapaxar

Submitted: 28 March 2013
Accepted: 28 March 2013
Published: 24 April 2013
Abstract Views: 1077
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Antiplatelet drugs are the cornerstone of treatment for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Clopidogrel and aspirin improve long-term vascular clinical outcomes in these patients and have become a standard of care. However, many patients still experience ischemic/thrombotic events, and it appears that insufficient response to both aspirin and clopidogrel contribute to this failure. Newer P2Y12 receptor blocker therapy resulted in only an approximately 2% reduction in absolute risk compared with clopidogrel. This indicates that residual ischemic events are mediated by other pathways that are unblocked by current dual antiplatelet therapy. Thrombin is the most potent platelet agonist (over 1000 times more than adenosine diphosphate on a molar basis). Thrombin-mediated platelet activation depends on proteaseactivated receptor (PAR) binding. PAR-1 is the main receptor for thrombin on human platelets; PAR-4 may contribute to platelet activation at much higher concentrations of thrombin. Inhibition of the PAR-1 may provide additional benefits over the standard dual antiplatelet therapy in attenuating ischemic event in patients with ACS. Vorapaxar is a new highly selective oral PAR-1 antagonist that inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation. We review the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and clinical profile of vorapaxar. Although preliminary data indicated that vorapaxar may have the potential to improve ischemic outcomes without significantly increasing bleeding, more recent larger clinical trials seem to be less optimistic about both its effectiveness and safety. At this time, the role of vorapaxar in the settings of atherothrombotic disorders is not clear. Although it may be associated with less bleeding than P2Y12 receptor blockers, its antithrombotic effectiveness and side effects are major concerns.

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How to Cite

Airoldi, G., & Campanini, M. (2013). Vorapaxar. Italian Journal of Medicine, 7(2), 88–95. https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2013.88

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