Risk factors for venous thromboembolism and prophylaxis in medical inpatients: data from the FADOI ‘‘GEMINI’’ study

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Mauro Campanini *
Gualberto Gussoni
Mauro Silingardi
Gianluigi Scannapieco
Carlo Buniolo
Antonella Valerio
Walter Ageno
Ido Iori
Antonino Mazzone
on behalf of the FADOI ‘‘GEMINI’’ study
(*) Corresponding Author:
Mauro Campanini | paola.granata@pagepress.org

Abstract

Background: Though venous thromboembolism (VTE) frequently occurs in non-surgical setting, epidemiology and risk factors for VTE in unselected medical inpatients have not been extensively studied, and uncertainties remain about the prophylactic strategy in these patients.
Materials and methods: In a prospective, observational, multicenter study we aimed to contemporarily assess the epidemiology of symptomatic VTE in consecutive patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine, to evaluate the impact of potential risk factors, and the attitude of internists towards thromboprophylaxis. A total of 4,846 patients were included, during the period March-September 2006.
Results: Symptomatic VTE was registered in 177 (3.65%) patients; of these, 26 cases (0.55%) occurred with onset of symptoms > 48 hours after admission (‘‘hospital-acquired’’ events, primary study end-point). Previous VTE and bed resting were significantly associated with venous thromboembolism, while a trend for increased risk was documented in cancer patients. During hospital stay antithrombotic prophylaxis was globally administered in 41.6% of patients, and in 58.4% of those for which prophylaxis was recommended according to 2004 guidelines by the American College of Chest Physicians. The choice of administering tromboprophylaxis appeared qualitatively adherent to indications from randomized trials and international guidelines, and bed rest was the strongest determinant of the use of prophylaxis.
Conclusions: Data from our real-world study confirm that VTE is a quite common finding in patients admitted to Internal Medicine departments, and recommended tromboprophylaxis is still underused, in particular in some patients groups. Further efforts are needed to better define the risk profile and to optimize prophylaxis in the heterogeneous setting of medical patients.

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