Sleep-related breathing disorders and non-invasive ventilation

  • Agata Lax Neuromuscular Diseases Unit, Don Gnocchi Foundation, Milan, Italy.
  • Simona Colamartino Respiratory Medicine Unit, Hospital of Sestri Levante (GE), Italy.
  • Paolo Banfi Neuromuscular Diseases Unit, Don Gnocchi Foundation, Milan, Italy.
  • Antonello Nicolini | antonello.nicolini@fastwebnet.it Respiratory Medicine Unit, Hospital of Sestri Levante (GE), Italy.

Abstract

Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NPPV) was originally used in patients with acute respiratory impairment or exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases, as an alternative to the endotracheal tube. Over the last thirty years NPPV has been also used at night in patients with stable chronic lung disease such as obstructive sleep apnea, the overlap syndrome (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea), neuromuscular disorders, obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, and in other conditions such as sleep disorders associated with congestive heart failure (Cheyne-Stokes respiration). In this no-systematic review we discuss the different types of NPPV, the specific conditions in which they can be used and the indications, recommendations and evidence supporting the efficacy of NPPV. Optimizing patient acceptance and adherence to non-invasive ventilation treatment is challenging. The treatment of sleep-related disorders is a life-threatening condition. The optimal level of treatment should be determined in a sleep laboratory. Side effects directly affecting the patient’s adherence to treatment are known. The most common are nasopharyngeal symptoms including increased congestion and rhinorrhea; these effects are related to reduced humidity of inspired gas. Humidification of delivered gas may improve these symptoms.

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Published
2015-05-08
Section
Reviews
Keywords:
Sleep-related respiratory disorders, non-invasive ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure, bilevel positive airway pressure.
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How to Cite
Lax, A., Colamartino, S., Banfi, P., & Nicolini, A. (2015). Sleep-related breathing disorders and non-invasive ventilation. Italian Journal of Medicine, 9(2), 109-115. https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2015.395