Anticancer effects of punicalagin and 5-fluorouracil on laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: an in vitro study

Published: 22 February 2024
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The purpose of this study was to assess the apoptotic effects of punicalagin alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (Hep-2) cell line. Hep-2 cells were cultured and divided into four groups: Group 1 received no therapy and served as control, Group 2 received 5-FU only, Group 3 received punicalagin only, and Group 4 received a combination of 5-FU and punicalagin. After 48 hours of incubation, cellular changes were examined under an inverted microscope. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, caspase-3 gene level, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level were assessed. The control group showed the highest mean value of cancer cell proliferation rate (1.595±0.58), followed by the punicalagin group (1.263±0.447), then the 5-FU group (0.827±0.256), while the combination group showed the lowest proliferation rate (0.253±0.111). The combination group showed the highest mean value of caspase-3 concentration (3.177±0.736), followed by the 5-FU group (1.830±0.646), and punicalagin group (0.741±0.302), while the control group showed the lowest mean value (0.359±0.117). Regarding VEGF levels, the control group had a statistically significant higher mean value, followed by the punicalagin and 5-FU groups, and finally, the combination group which showed the lowest value. Punicalagin exerts an anticancer effect through anti-proliferative action and induction of apoptosis on Hep-2 cell line. Combining punicalagin with 5-FU potentiates its anti-proliferative, apoptotic, and anti-angiogenic actions. It, further, helps in mitigating the putative side effects of 5-FU by reducing the dose required for its therapeutic effects.

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How to Cite

Taha, A. M., Abd-Elshafy, E., Khalifa, A. M., Dar-Odeh, N., Elsayed, S., Alharkan, D. S., Alhodhodi, A., Sapri, A. M., Ragheb, Y. S., & Balbola, G. A. (2024). Anticancer effects of punicalagin and 5-fluorouracil on laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: an <i>in vitro</i> study. Italian Journal of Medicine, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2024.1699