COVID-19 effects on mental health of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities in North Kosovo

Published: 4 December 2023
Abstract Views: 421
PDF: 221
HTML: 27
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


Background. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) are susceptible to physical, mental and social implications of the COVID-19 pandemic. Aim. Learning the way young individuals with disabilities dealt with the COVID-19 pandemic and how it affected their lives. Materials and Methods. An epidemiological questionnaire including information on the person’s health, mental state, behavior, educational capabilities, and epidemiological and clinical features of the COVID-19 infection was completed by 41 children/young adults and their family members. Results. During the two-year period of the pandemic, we monitored the frequency of COVID-19 infection in children and adolescents with intellectual disorders, children’s mental condition, and the occurrence of post-COVID symptoms. We also discussed the role of society regarding economic stability and support for families with a disabled member. Conclusions. The severity of COVID-19 symptoms was the independent predictor of mental status deterioration. Children and adolescents with ID experienced a greater prevalence of COVID-19 infection as well as post-COVID sequelae.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Tyrrell DA, Bynoe ML. Cultivation Of A Novel Type Of Common-Cold Virus In Organ Cultures. Br Med J 1965;1:1467-70. DOI:
Cui J, Li F, Shi ZL. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol 2019;17:181-92. DOI:
Fani M, Teimoori A, Ghafari S. Comparison of the COVID-2019 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections. Future Virol 2020. DOI:
Courtenay K, Perera B. COVID-19 and people with intellectual disability: impacts of a pandemic. Irish J Psychol Med 2020;37:231-6. DOI:
UNICEF. The state of world’s children 2011: Adolescence – An age of opportunity, United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, New York, NY.
Maulik PK, Mascarenhas MN, Mathers CD, et al. Prevalence of intellectual disability: a meta-analysis of population-based studies. Res Dev Disabil 2011;32:419-36. DOI:
Cuypers M, Schalk BM, Koks-Leensen MCJ, et al. Mortality of people with intellectual disabilities during the 2017/2018 influenza epidemic in the Netherlands: potential implications for the COVID-19 pandemic. J Intellect Disabil Res 2020;64:482-8. DOI:
Viner RM, Ward JL, Hudson LD, et al. Systematic Review of Reviews of Symptoms and Signs of COVID-19 in Children and Adolescents. Arch Dis Child 2021;106:802-7. DOI:
Bai K, Liu W, Liu C, et al. Clinical Analysis of 25 COVID-19 Infections in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020;39:e100-e103. DOI:
Boehmer TK, Kompaniyets L, Lavery AM, et al. Association Between COVID-19 and Myocarditis Using Hospital. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1228-32. DOI:
Raina R, Mawby I, Chakraborty R, et al. Acute kidney injury in COVID-19 pediatric patients in North America: Analysis of the virtual pediatric systems data. PloS One 2022;17:e0266737. DOI:
O'Leary L, Hughes-McCormack L, Dunn K, Cooper SA. Early death and causes of death of people with Down syndrome: A systematic review. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2018;31:687-708. DOI:
Perera B, Audi S, Solomou S, et al. Mental and physical health conditions in people with intellectual disabilities: Comparing local and national data. Br J Learn Disabil 2020;48:19-27. DOI:
American Academy of Pediatrics. Critical Updates on COVID-19. COVID-19 interim guidance. Post-COVID-19 conditions in children and adolescents. Available from:
World Health Organization. A clinical case definition of post-COVID-19 condition by a Delphi consensus. October 2019. Available from:
Loades ME, Chatburn E, Higson-Sweeney N, et al. Rapid Systematic Review: The Impact of Social Isolation and Loneliness on the Mental Health of Children and Adolescents in the Context of COVID-19. J Ame Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2020;59:1218-39.e3. DOI:
Zhang J, Shuai L, Yu H, et al. Acute stress, behavioural symptoms and mood states among school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder during the COVID-19 outbreak. Asian J Psychiatry 2020;51:102077. DOI:
Masi A, Mendoza Diaz A, Tully L, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the well-being of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities and their parents. J Paediatr Child Health 2021;57:631-6. DOI:
Alexander R, A Barclay, HSawhney, et al. Guidance for the Treatment and Management of COVID-19 Among People with Intellectual Disabilities. J Policy Pract Intellect Disabil 2020;17:256-69. DOI:
Chauke T, Poggenpoel M, Myburgh CPH, Ntshingila N. Experiences of parents of an adolescent with intellectual disability in Giyani, Limpopo province, South Africa. J Interdiscip Health Sci, Health SA Gesondheid 2021;26:1538. DOI:
Theis N, Campbell N, De Leeuw J, Owen M. The effects of COVID-19 restrictions on physical activity and mental health of children and young adults with physical and/or intellectual disabilities. Disabil Health J 2021;14:101064. DOI:
Merla S, Kumar SN. A study on the levels of depression, stress and anxiety of parents having children with intellectual disability. Int J Indian Psychol 2021;9:1000-5. DOI:
Woodman AC, Mawdsley HP, Hauser-Cram P. Parenting stress and child behavior problems within families of children with developmental disabilities: Transactional relations across 15 years. Res Dev Disabil 2015;36C:264-76. DOI:
Fäldt AE, Klint F, Warner G, Sarkadi A. Experiences of children with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden: a qualitative interview study. BMJ Paediatrics open 2022;6:e001398. DOI:

How to Cite

Markovic-Jovanovic, S. R., Jovanovic, A. N., Petrovic, M., Ristic, D., Dzeletovic, G., Karanovic, A., Tabakovic, D., & Jovanovic, D. (2023). COVID-19 effects on mental health of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities in North Kosovo. Italian Journal of Medicine, 17(3).