Assessment of knowledge and attitude among healthcare workers towards monkeypox disease: a cross-sectional study from Saudi Arabia

Published: 26 September 2023
Abstract Views: 392
PDF: 221
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


Background. Monkeypox has been announced recently as a global public health emergency by the World Health Organization. The recent outbreak of monkeypox has brought back concerns about how this viral infection can spread easily between individuals and cause a major health concern. Objectives. The objective of this study was to assess healthcare workers’ (HCWs) knowledge about monkeypox illness, its transmission, prevention, and attitudes toward this re-emerging disease. Materials and Methods. A descriptive correlational cross-sectional survey was conducted in Saudi Arabia from June to August 2022 and targeted HCWs including medical technologists and technicians, physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and others. Results. A total of 385 participants were included where 53.5% of respondents were male compared to 46.5% female. The average score for knowledge was 9.90, and the majority of respondents had an inadequate understanding of monkeypox. In addition, the average score of attitude toward monkeypox infection was 50.19, which indicate that HCWs have a positive view of efforts to prevent monkeypox. Conclusions. In Saudi Arabia, HCWs were found to have an inadequate understanding of the virus that causes monkeypox. This study shows how important it is for HCWs to learn more, since managing contagious infections requires a lot of help from trained and knowledgeable medical professionals.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Parker S, Buller RM. A review of experimental and natural infections of animals with monkeypox virus between 1958 and 2012. Future Virol 2013;8:129-57. DOI:
Heymann DL, Szczeniowski M, Esteves K. Re-emergence of monkeypox in Africa: a review of the past six years. Br Med Bull 1998;54:693-702. DOI:
McCollum AM, Damon IK. Human monkeypox [published correction appears in Clin Infect Dis 2014;58:1792]. Clin Infect Dis 2014;58:260-7.
Abed Alah M, Abdeen S, Tayar E, Bougmiza I. The story behind the first few cases of monkeypox infection in nonendemic countries, 2022. J Infect Public Health 2022;15:970-4. DOI:
The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Monkeypox: a neglected old foe. Lancet Infect Dis 2022;22:913. DOI:
Kugelman JR, Johnston SC, Mulembakani PM, et al. Genomic variability of monkeypox virus among humans, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis 2014;20:232-9. DOI:
Reynolds MG, Carroll DS, Karem KL. Factors affecting the likelihood of monkeypox’s emergence and spread in the post-smallpox era. Curr Opin Virol 2012;2:335-43. DOI:
Alkhalil A, Hammamieh R, Hardick J, et al. Gene expression profiling of monkeypox virus-infected cells reveals novel interfaces for host-virus interactions. Virol J 2010;7. DOI:
World Health Organization. Human monkeypox in Kasai Oriental, Democratic Republic of the Congo (former Zaire): Preliminary report of October 1997 investigation = Des cas humains d’orthopoxvirose simienne au Kasaï oriental, République démocratique du Congo (exZaïre): Rapport préliminaire de l’investigation d’octobre 1997. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire. 1997;72:369-372. Available from:
Samaranayake L, Anil S. The Monkeypox Outbreak and Implications for Dental Practice. Int Dent J 2022;72:589-96. DOI:
Pal M, Mengstie F, Kandi V. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Control of Monkeypox Disease: A comprehensive Review. Ame J Infect Dis Microbiol 2017;5:94-9.
Quarleri J, Delpino MV, Galvan V. Monkeypox: considerations for the understanding and containment of the current outbreak in non-endemic countries. Geroscience 2022;44:2095-103. DOI:
Update: Multistate Outbreak of Monkeypox-Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. JAMA 2003;290:325-7. Available from: doi: DOI:
Nolen LD, Osadebe L, Katomba J, et al. Introduction of Monkeypox into a Community and Household: Risk Factors and Zoonotic Reservoirs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015;93:410-5. DOI:
McCollum AM, Damon IK. Human monkeypox [published correction appears in Clin Infect Dis 2014;58:1792]. Clin Infect Dis 2014;58:260-7. DOI:
Nolen LD, Osadebe L, Katomba J, et al. Extended Human-to-Human Transmission during a Monkeypox Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo [published correction appears in Emerg Infect Dis 2016;22]. Emerg Infect Dis 2016;22:1014-21. DOI:
Saudi Press Agency. Saudi Arabia Reports First Case of Monkeypox for A Person Coming from Abroad The official Saudi Press Agency. 2022. Available from: (accessed April 26, 2023).
Cevik M, Marcus JL, Buckee C, Smith TC. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Transmission Dynamics Should Inform Policy. Clin Infect Dis 2021;73:S170-S176. DOI:
Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health. Statistical Year Book. 2018. Available from: Statistics/book/Documents/book-Statistics.pdf (accessed April 26, 2023)
Raosoft. Sample Size Calculator by Raosoft, Inc. 2004. Available from:
Second meeting of the International Health Regulations. 2005. Emergency Committee regarding the multi country outbreak of monkeypox. Available from:
Alshahrani NZ, Alzahrani F, Alarifi AM, et al. Assessment of Knowledge of Monkeypox Viral Infection among the General Population in Saudi Arabia. Pathogens 2022;11:904. DOI:
Sallam M, Al-Mahzoum K, Al-Tammemi AB, et al. Assessing Healthcare Workers’ Knowledge and Their Confidence in the Diagnosis and Management of Human Monkeypox: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Middle Eastern Country. Healthcare 2022;10:1722. DOI:
Alshahrani NZ, Algethami MR, Alarifi AM, et al. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Monkeypox Virus among Physicians in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Vaccines (Basel) 2022;10:2099. DOI:
Focosi D, Novazzi F, Baj A, Maggi F. Monkeypox: An international epidemic. Rev Med Virol 2022;32:e2392. DOI:
Winters M, Malik AA, Omer SB. Attitudes towards Monkeypox vaccination and predictors of vaccination intentions among the US general public. PLoS One 2022;17:e0278622. DOI:
Alshahrani NZ, Mitra S, Alkuwaiti AA, et al. Medical Students’ Perception Regarding the Re-emerging Monkeypox Virus: An Institution-Based Cross-Sectional Study From Saudi Arabia. Cureus 2022;14:e28060. DOI:
Harapan H, Setiawan AM, Yufika A, et al. Knowledge of human monkeypox viral infection among general practitioners: a cross-sectional study in Indonesia. Pathog Glob Health 2020;114:68-75. DOI:
Sabogal-Roman JA, Murillo-García DR, Yepes-Echeverri MC, et al. Healthcare students and workers’ knowledge about transmission, epidemiology, and symptoms of Zika fever in four cities of Colombia. Travel Med Infect Dis 2016;14:52-4. DOI:
Escalera-Antezana JP, Cerruto-Zelaya PE, Apaza-Huasco M, et al. Healthcare workers’ and students’ knowledge regarding the transmission, epidemiology, and symptoms of COVID-19 in 41 cities of Bolivia and Colombia. Travel Med Infect Dis 2020;37:101702. DOI:
Qadah T. Knowledge and attitude among healthcare workers towards COVID-19: a cross-sectional study from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. J Infect Dev Ctries 2020;14:1090-7. DOI:
Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Lopardo G. Monkeypox: Another Sexually Transmitted Infection? Pathogens 2022;11:713. DOI:
Kalthan E, Dondo-Fongbia JP, Yambele S, et al. [Twelve cases of monkeypox virus outbreak in Bangassou District (Central African Republic) in December 2015]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2016;109:358-63. DOI:

How to Cite

Qadah, T. (2023). Assessment of knowledge and attitude among healthcare workers towards monkeypox disease: a cross-sectional study from Saudi Arabia. Italian Journal of Medicine, 17(2).