Obesity, metabolic syndrome, male hypogonadism and cardiovascular risk
AbstractBackground: A large body of evidences indicates that sexual dysfunction, and in particular erectile dysfunction (ED), may represent an early surrogate marker of different disease states such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depression. Furthermore, it has been suggested that ED could also be considered the first sign of a forthcoming coronary heart disease (CHD) and an efficient predictor of silent CHD in a diabetic population, independently of glycometabolic control and ED severity. Hypogonadism is frequently associated with MetS both in subjects with or without ED, insulin resistance being the putative pathogenetic link. In subjects with ED hypogonadism can exacerbate sexual dysfunction because of its typical symptoms, such as decreased sexual desire and mood disturbances. However, hypogonadism per se has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and overall mortality.
Aim of the study: In this review, a comprehensive literature search was carried out, in order to discuss the relationship between insulin resistance, ED, MetS and hypogonadism, focusing on their possible involvement in the development of cardiovascular diseases.
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Copyright (c) 2013 Giovanni Corona, Francesco Lotti, Alessandra Sforza, Mario Maggi, Valerio Chiarini
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