Cover Image

Evaluation of the pharmacoeconomics of drugs used for the treatment of long-term complications of sulfur mustard

Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Milad Vakili Zarch, Zohreh Poursaleh, Shahram Parvin, Ramin Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
  • Yunes Panahi
    Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
  • Mostafa Ghanei
    Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
  • Milad Vakili Zarch
    School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, Islamic Republic of
  • Zohreh Poursaleh
    Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
  • Shahram Parvin
    Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
  • Ramin Rezaee
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran, Islamic Republic of
  • Amirhossein Sahebkar
    Biotechnology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, Islamic Republic of | amir_saheb2000@yahoo.com

Abstract

Sulfur Mustard (SM), a cytotoxic vesicant chemical warfare agent, has powerful irritant and blistering effects on the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Since during the Iraq-Iran war, many Iranian soldiers and civilians were exposed to SM, there are several victims still suffering from long-term cutaneous, ocular and pulmonary complications. Currently, there is no definite treatment for long-term complications of SM, and only supportive medical care is being taken to minimize the symptoms. In this study, we compared the cost-effectiveness of common drugs that are used against long-term SM-induced complications in Iranian patients. In this review article, electronic databases were checked using the following key words: sulfur mustard, lung, skin, eye, cost-effectiveness, pharmacoeconomics and treatment. Abstracts of non-English papers and proceedings of congresses on SM were also assessed. Among the studied drugs, high-dose oral N-acetyl cysteine and long-acting inhaled corticosteroids against respiratory complications, topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines against cutaneous complications and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids ophthalmic drops against ocular complications were found to be cost-effective. Usage of different drugs in the treatment of SM injuries in Iran, have imposed a significant economic burden to patients and their families because many drugs that are effective against chemical injuries are not covered by insurance. In addition, the development of more effective drugs in this field is considered as an urgent demand that should be noticed by the pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords

Sulfur mustard; lung; skin; eye, cost-effectiveness; treatment; pharmacoeconomics.

Full Text

PDF
HTML
Submitted: 2016-05-17 21:57:00
Published: 2016-08-29 00:00:00
Search for citations in Google Scholar
Related articles: Google Scholar
Abstract views:
259

Views:
PDF
159
HTML
3

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


Copyright (c) 2016 Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Milad Vakili Zarch, Zohreh Poursaleh, Shahram Parvin, Ramin Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
 
© PAGEPress 2008-2017     -     PAGEPress is a registered trademark property of PAGEPress srl, Italy.     -     VAT: IT02125780185